|Jaunty caps, well turned out, good drill - the ship's company of HMS Thanet at the march-past in pre-war Hong Kong|
The main naval and military presence in the Far East was in Singapore. Hong Kong was seen as an isolated outpost and a strategic liability. Churchill knew it could not be defended. It was too close to Japanese aircraft bases in Formosa and Southern China, and the Japanese had several divisions across the border in southern China. This explains the weakness of the Royal Navy and RAF in Hong Kong in the lead up to war. On the day war started, 8 December, 1941, Thracian, which had been converted into a minelayer role by clearing its rear gun and adding minelaying racks to its stern-quarters, was laying mines in Port Shelter guarded by Thanet. HMS Scout was in dry-dock at Tai Koo having its bottom plates cleaned. HMS Moth and HMAPV Margaret were in dry-dock at the RN dockyard. These two vessels never got out of dock, and were later scuttled in the flooded dock, and played no part in the battle.
In the event of war breaking out, there was a standing plan that Thanet and Scout would sail to Singapore and join Force Z, which had arrived in Singapore on 2 December 1941, and consisted of the battleship HMS Prince of Wales, the battlecruiser HMS Repulse together with their escort destroyers. This plan had been agreed with the US naval authorities and included a commitment in return for some US warships to be sent to Singapore.
After nightfall on Monday 8 December Scout and Thanet sailed through the gates of the anti-submarine boom at Lye Mun. Since Lt-Cdr Davies on Thanet was more senior than Lt-Cdr Lambton on Scout, Thanet took the lead as senior ship. While on passage to Manila they spent some time looking for SS Ulysses which had left Hong Kong on Sunday with passengers bound first for Manila and Singapore. Ulysses had sent a distress signal after being bombed and strafed by Japanese aircraft on Monday. She was undamaged and changed course for Singapore. She arrived safely in Singapore, but was sunk by a U-boat off the Carolinas while on passage to UK.
SS Ulysses - the story of a shipbattleforhongkong.blogspot.com
The two destroyers were involved initially in escort work around the Straits of Singapore. On Christmas Day Thanet was sent out on an SOS mission to pick up the crew of a Catalina flying boat that had been shot down by Japanese AA fire. The crew were picked up by a Dutch submarine before Thanet arrived. On 26 January 1942, a Japanese troop convoy was reported approaching Endau, on the southeast coast of Malaya, north of the town of Mersing, and by leap-frogging down the coast by use of troop landings, the Japanese Army were outflanking the British and getting closer to Singapore.
|Map showing location of Endau relative to Singapore|
After the order was given to abandon ship, there was enough time for most of Thanet's crew to get off the ship and into the water. Many were able to get aboard the Carley floats, others hanging on to floating debris, they started paddling, and pushing their rafts towards the East Malayan coast. Reports suggest that the Shirayuki picked up thirty-one of Thanet's crew members. They were landed at Endau and handed over to the Japanese Army. None of these men were seen again and it is assumed they were all executed by the Japanese possibly as an act of retaliation for Japanese losses in an ambush carried out by Australian troops. One of the Thanet officers, Sub-Lt R.H. Danger, the ship's Torpedo Officer, remained on Shirayuki, it is not clear why; perhaps he was wounded, perhaps they wanted to interrogate him as to presence of minefields. He was later interned in Indochina, and he survived the war.
The web site for Force-Z survivors (www.forcez-survivors.org.uk), details some one hundred and thirteen crew members, including some Chinese stewards and cooks, and identifies those that were killed in action on 27 January 1941. There are thirty-seven Thanet crew listed as killed and their details are also shown in Commonwealth War Graves Commissions records. Thirty of those thirty-seven listed as killed on 27 January must have been in the group picked up by Shirayuki and the remaining seven may have perished when the ship sank, or they may have failed to make it ashore and drowned, or, they may have died whilst trying to make their way south to Singapore.
When the survivors reached the shore they became widely dispersed. Few of them had any footwear or much clothing. They all headed southwards determined to get back to Singapore more than eighty miles away. Some went along the jungle shore following the coast. Some found boats. Some went along roads through the jungle towards Johore. The survivors ran into various RAF aircrew who had been shot down, and who were also heading south for the relative safety of Singapore with the Japanese relentlessly advancing behind them. Sgt Charles MacDonald had been shot down in his Vildebeest, most likely in the attack on the same group of Japanese landing ships and destroyers at Endau. He recalled coming across a number of Thanet survivors. They joined up and made their way through the jungle to Singapore. Sgt Harry Lockwood had been shot down in a Fairy Albacore. He met up with six Thanet survivors who were heading for Singapore. Two RAF officers who had ditched their aircraft north of Mersing, found a boat which they used to cross the Mersing River. They then ran into a group of Thanet survivors. They joined up, and used the boat to go south, rowing at night and sleeping ashore during the day. They were eventually picked up by a coaster and taken to Singapore. In another incident, RAF pilot John Fleming had ditched in the sea. He swam ashore and started heading south. He swam the Mersing River and after continuing southwards came across a large group of Thanet survivors, some of which he recalled had been badly injured. They found a whaler and used the boat to sail down the coast. At one point they were hailed by another group of Thanet survivors who were with two aircrew from a shot-down Vildebeest. They were taken onboard the whaler and the escapees continued down the coast eventually reaching Singapore.
Between fifty and sixty survivors trickled back to Singapore all having made incredible escapes, some by land and some by sea. The Naval Historical Society of Australia web site states that some of the survivors were allocated to HMS Stronghold and HMS Sultan. The former was another S-class destroyer which was sank in March 1942, the latter was the RN shore base in Singapore. Other sources state that a number of Thanet survivors together with other Force Z survivors got away on HMS Endeavour which was reportedly one of the last evacuation ships to get away from Singapore before the surrender.
|The gallant Thanet (Naval Historical Society of Australia)|
Danger, Richard Henry
He was born I'm Lynton, Devon on 5 April 1918. He was a Merchant Navy Officer and a member of RNR. He enlisted in 1936. On Thanet he acted as Torpedo officer. He was held on board the Japanese destroyer Shirayuki. Thereafter he was incarcerated in POW camps in French Indochina and in Singapore and Thailand. He married Alexandra De Veer in Jan 1949. He died in London in December 1997.
Flint, Francis Murray
Andrew Glynn kindly sent me a wartime press cutting from the Daily Telegraph (date not confirmed) regarding Lt Francis Flint, RNVR. He had managed to get evacuated from Singapore after he and a petty officer and 17 ratings managed to sail and row a raft down the coast. They received food and water from a village. Flint mentions AB Barber as being in their group. They were given five canoes. At one point they were guided to a British Army camp but when they got their they found it had been evacuated. They returned to the canoes. They joined up with another canoe in which was the Yeoman of Signals, the ship's cook and a stoker all from Thanet. They then got hold of a sampan and paddled to a fishing village where they were given a mast and sail and finally reached Singapore. Lt Flint was the son of an artist Russell Flint. Francis Flint had artistic ability and in 1943 (after return to the UK) he painted a water colour depicting the loss of Thanet. This painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy.
Johnston, William (1916-2007) SSX 25688
He joined the Royal Navy 25 May 1938. He served in RN shore establishment at Chatham HMS Pembroke (1938/1939). He sailed to Hong Kong on the County Class heavy cruiser HMS Cornwall (15/3/39-25/5/39). He dived into the water following the order to abandon ship and was picked up by one of the Carley floats and reached the shore. When they got ashore they found a small boat. They were later were picked up by a whaler (ship's boat) and sailed to Singapore. He was evacuated from Singapore on board HMAS Hobart and taken to Batavia (Jakarta) from where he sailed on the troopship HMT Dunera to Colombo, Ceylon. On return to UK he joined the submarine service, serving on submarines including HMS Scorcher and HMS Unruly. He was promoted to Petty Officer. After the war he served in the Merchant Navy. He never forgot his time on Thanet, the battle at Emdau and the escape to Singapore. He passed away in 2007 aged 91. He left four daughters one of whom, Lorrain Johnston, has kindly provided me with information about her father's war time experiences.
Alexander Trevett joined the Royal Navy in November 1930 aged fifteen. He was serving in Hong Kong before the war (1938/39) with the gunboats before transferring to HMS Thanet. He survived the sinking and made it to shore in the ship's skiff with several other crew members. He made it down the coast (80 miles) to Singapore and was evacuated on one of the last ships to leave Singapore. He continued to serve in the RN throughout the remainder of WW2. After the war he joined the Royal New Zealand Navy.
|A/B Alexander Trevett (Courtesy Keith Trevett)|
|Last Name||First Names||Rank||Date of Death||Commentary|
|Armstrong||Thomas James||A/B||KIA||27/1/1942||KIA Battle of Endau|
|Bailey||Horace Norman||Warrant Officer||Survived||survived|
|Bonner||Henry Walter Albert||A/B||Died as POW||31/1/1942||Died in POW Camp|
|Britt||Noel||A/B||POW - Survived|
|Danger||Richard Henley||Sub- Lt||POW - Survived||Reportedly was picked up by IJN Shirayuki and remained on board when others were taken off and was held in POW Camp in Dutch East Indies and survived internment.|
|Davey||Patrick Vere Mollan||Sub- Lt||survived|
|Davies||Bernard Sydney||Lt-Cdr||survived||Commanding Officer|
|Dean||Cecil Rowland Delamotte||O/S||27/1/1942||KIA|
|Dickens||George||ERA||survived||Elsewhere shown as Lt (E)|
|English||Robert James||PO Stwd||27/1/1942||KIA|
|Flint||Francis Murray Russell||Lt||survived|
|Fry||James Ronald||A/B||15/1/1941||Died in POW Camp|
|Fryatt||John Alfred William||PO Tel.||27/1/1942||KIA|
|Hutchison||George Moir Dorian||Lt. Cdr||survived|
|Ings||William George Rowland||Yeoman of Signals||survived|
|Kenny||Lionel Desmond Bryan||Lt||survived|
|Medhurst||Alan||A/B||31/1/1942||Died as POW|
|O' Brien||John Patrick||Sto.2.||survived|
|Pengelly||Ronald George Arnold||A/B||27/1/1942||KIA|
|Rix||Leslie Herbert Samuel||L/S||27/1/1942||KIA|
|Sheppard||Reginald Nelson||CPO||31/1/1942||Died as POW|
|Smyth||John Richard||WO Gunner||survived|
|Su||Tai Cheung||Stwd.||survived||Chinese Steward|
|Thomas||Cecil Pinder||A/B||5||31/1/1942||Died as POW|
|Watmore||Charles Maurice||Sto. 1||26/1/1942||KIA|
|Williams||William George||PO Sto.||26/1/1942||KIA|
|Young||Albert. E||PO||71||POW - Survived|
|Died as POW 5|
|CWGC Web site|